Regulatory Functions of the Kidneys

Regulatory Functions of the Kidneys

Regulatory Functions of the Kidneys The kidneys are involved in maintaining the fluid and electrolyte balance, and also the acid-base balance, of the blood. If the kidneys fail to carry out these vital functions, either hemodialysis or a kidney transplant is needed. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance The average adult male body is about 60% water by weight. The average adult female body is only about 50% water by weight because females generally have more subcutaneous adipose tissue, which contains less water. About two-thirds of this water is inside the cells (called intracellular fluid), and the rest is largely distributed in the plasma, tissue fluid, and lymph (called extracellular fluid). Water is also present in such fluids as cerebrospinal fluid and synovial fluid; in Figure 16.6, these fluids are referred to as “other” fluids. For body fluids to be normal, it is necessary for the body to be in fluid balance. The total water intake should equal the total water loss. Table 16.2...
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